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The transit system here is better than in my country

In this city theres a train line that services the city north-south. For paying for fares there are two options: one is buying a card that has four rides worth of value on it. The other (for citizens) is to buy a card you can recharge). You buy these at booths from people inside the station building/area. The four-rides option is a plastic credit-card style card.

To enter the train terminal, there are turnstyles with card readers. You place your card against the reader. A screen beside it displays how much value you are charged and how much remains. If it is the last of four rides, it tells you to insert the card (instead of keeping it in your hand as you enter). Then the turnstyle is unlocked and you pass through. There are transit workers here which can see no one is jumping over the turnstyle.


Now you ride the train as much as you want until you exit a turnstyle at any station. There is a flat rate for taking the train anywhere and for any amount of time. You do not scan your card when you exit. You just exit. Therefore if you lost your ticket on the train you wont have a problem exiting.

The security workers for the train are therefore not tasked with 'policing' or 'checking tickets.' There is no uncomfortable and irritating ticket checks. There are no fines or the cost of processing fines. The workers who would be checking tickets and 'policing' in my country are here allowed to service the customers ie offer information and directions when asked and ensure physical safety and security.

The experience is easier and more comfortable and less aggravating. The cost of running this type of system appears to be much less because it involves less problems to have to deal with and perhaps less workers - in any case, the workers appeared to me of more value than the 'ticket checkers' etc in my country's city trains.


Risograph Printing

From what I've learned (I met some people in their riso printing studio the other day and learned the process and made some test prints), what can be done on risograph can be done on the regular photo service store printers, so I don't know if riso is that valuable.

The guys at the studio make their money from medium-sized runs (between 50 and a thousand or two) because its most cost effective than a photo studio but less so than (i forget the word but the machines used for bigger print jobs).

one thing is you have to do runs with riso, generally of 50 or more.

riso printers look like regular photocopy printers. there are four color drums (pink, blue, yellow, black). only one drum is in the machine at a time. you do your run with that color, then swap the color drum and print that color on the same pages. sometimes the color from one drum is still there for the next pages, so it can leave bands of color across the print (unfortunately). also, the first prints are less evenly colored (and darker generally) than the ones that are printed later on. The prints dont line up exactly. they can be adjusted i guess, somewhat like a lithograph machine, but i think less exactly. so sometimes your colors wont be lined up.


to make other colors, two or more colors are mixed. the effect is good, though. Yellow and pink can make a bright, even orange.

The machine can add textures. There are two options. One is 'Screen tone' which is like dots like in Archie comics, and you can control the size of the dots (and spacing therefore) and the angle of the dots. The other option is 'grain touch' which is a patternless color fill that can look like charcoal rub when its not applied strongly.

The maximum size the machine can do is 11x17.

In order to prepare images to print, the images must be separated into the 4 colors (which each are saved as a greyscale image) to print. The four separate images are printed separately on the same page. One way to prepare these is to use Photoshop and convert the colors to CYNB. This automatically makes four color layers in (i forget the name but one of the) Photoshop window panes. Each of these can be printed (I forget if they have to be converted to greyscale first or if they can just be printed). Another option is to separate the four color phases of your print job into images and save them as a pdf).

Price for 50 prints (4 colors) on 11x7 carta bond 115g paper (fairly thick white paper) is (the equivalent of) $10usd (20 cents each).


Natural Dyes

Natural dyes, for example walnut (hulls or nuts, but I read nuts produce darker dyes) or cutch (which comes from dried and powdered syrup from steeped Acacia Catechu tree wood), may or may not require scouring (preparation of the fabric by distressing/stripping it of natural waxes that protect the fabric from dying) and mordanting (fixing the color).

Generally, cotton (a cellulose based fabric) requires scouring because cotton is naturally waxy and pectin-y. When scoured, the color goes on as a darker, evener dye; when unscoured, the dye goes on in a scratchy, blotchy way. Unscoured dye jobs will not retain color as much as scoured. Cotton fabric that is already bleached may not need as much scouring.


Unscoured and scoured fabrics

To scour cotton, a container is filled with water and Synthrapol (5ml) and soda ash (aka Sodium Carbonate) (20g) is added for each half pound (250g) of cotton, and its simmered for around an hour.

Mordanting is before dying (or as a part of it) with aluminum acetate. There are other methods which use combinations of aluminum acetate and alum or use titanium oxalate. Mixed into water, 7-10g of aluminum acetate for 100g of cotton. The cotton is soaked in just water for two hours or so, then another pot of water is prepared (hot tap water) and the cotton fabric and the aluminum acetate are both added. Gloves are worn so the cotton can be worked and squeezed.

These descriptions of the process give a rough idea, but each dye has its own recipe(s) for how to achieve a good dye (there are various types of 'good dyes' with various color darknesses and tints).

For example, with cutch a deeper dye can be acheieved by first soaking the cutch powder in caustic soda (weak mixture: 1tsp for 4l of water), soaked for a hour, after which more water is added and the mix is neutralized with acetic acid or vinegar, and this is all added to the dyebath. The fabrics are then put in the dyebath and simmered for a couple hours.

Still talking about cutch, various tints can be acheived. Alum mordant causes a toffee brown dye. Iron at 2-4%wof makes chocolate browns. Soda ash rinse will redden the color. Adding 2%wof hydrogen peroxide during the final 15 minutes of dying will darken the cutch considerably. Leaving the fabric in the dyebath overnight will cause the darkest shades.


Malicious Prosecution (False Charges)

(Note: This page discusses the crimes and torts in general. Laws vary by location. These wordings are the terms in which the crime/tort is considered, though.)

Making a false accusation is actionable as "Malicious Prosecution," which is a tort, not a crime, for some reason. It cannot lead to arrest, merely to civil court where a complainant can try to get money for damages.

"Malicious Prosecution" (tort) is made against whoever "initiated" the original false charges. Usually this is police because they usually initiate charges. It is available for private prosecution, too, though.

To make this tort, the complainant has to show:

  1. There was manifestly no reason for the initial charge (they knew the charges were false or they knew there was no reason to believe the charges were true)

  2. There was malice / wrongful purpose in the decision to launch the initial false charge

(ie if a person is falsely charged but is found innocent, that is not enough to "prove" "malicious prosecution." You need more.)

Often, this charge is used when the initial false charge is made. This makes a court less likely to find guilt in the initial charge or could cause the initial complainant to drop their charges.

A weird thing is that apparently if the initial false charge succeeds you can't counter sue for making the false charge, it seems. You can't file the lawsuit in civil court until the initial charge is resolved in criminal court, it seems.

Also, "malicious prosecution" will likely fail against an official like the DA (county prosecutor in many cases) because you have to prove somehow they had malicious intent, and they are also often entitled to immunity even when its proved after a person has been convicted that they were actually innocent.

Another recourse is "Libel/Slander"

Many places, accusing someone of a crime falsely is considered "defamatory per se" or "actionable per se." That means that if someone accuses you falsely of a crime, the public authority considers that "harm is taken as a given" to you, and that your reputation is presumed to have been harmed.

How much liability a person has when they slander/libel another person varies by location. They might be liable for any damages that stemmed from their statements, including money lost as a result of problems/loss of work and inability to secure new work, harm to reputation, as well as less concrete damages such as embarrassment, mental anguish, humiliation.

Another recourse is "Blackmail" if the person made the false accusations after trying to blackmail someone else.

"Blackmail" is a crime and the charge leads to arrest. It's often a "Felony." In some places it is its own charge, in other places it is considered a form of "extortion or coercion."

In "Blackmail," the blackmailer has information (the information can be true or a lie, it makes no difference) that can damage the other party, and the blackmailer uses threats to cause the other party to do something they want them to do (something illegal or legal, it makes no difference). The central element of "Blackmail" is that the blackmailer's intent to get money or something else of value from the other party.

The threat made by the blackmailer to release information can include: to accuse someone falsely of a crime; to report someone's involvement in a crime; to reveal private or sensitive information about someone that will cause them embarrassment or financial harm.


Ferdinand VII

d. 1833